Russia is accused of struggle crimes in Ukraine, with the claims rising louder following the invention of dozens of our bodies in areas lately retaken from Russian forces close to the capital Kyiv.
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky has accused Moscow of tried “genocide” over the findings and labeled the bloody siege of the southern port of Mariupol a “crime against humanity”.
We take a look at the different categories of the most serious crimes known to man, which the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague was set up to prosecute.
Neither Russia nor Ukraine are parties to the ICC but Ukraine has accepted the court’s jurisdiction for alleged crimes committed on its soil since Russia’s invasion of Crimea.
The ICC’s chief prosecutor opened a probe into possible war crimes in Ukraine on March 3.
What is a war crime?
War crimes are serious violations of international law against civilians and combatants during an armed conflict.
The parameters of what constitutes such a crime are set out in Article 8 of the 1998 Rome Statute that established the ICC.
It defines them as “grave breaches” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions covering more than 50 scenarios, including killing, torture, rape and the taking of hostages as well as attacks on humanitarian missions.
It also covers deliberate attacks on civilians or “towns, villages, dwellings or buildings which are undefended and which are not military objectives” as well as the “deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population” of an occupied territory.
What is a crime against humanity?
The notion of such a crime was first laid down on August 8, 1945, and codified in article 7 of the Rome Statute. It involves “a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population” together with “murder” and “extermination” in addition to “enslavement” and “deportation or forcible transfer.”
Crimes in opposition to humanity can happen in peacetime and embody torture and rape and discrimination, be it racial, ethnic, cultural, non secular or gender-based.
What is genocide?
Genocide as a authorized idea dates again to the Nuremburg trials of Nazi struggle criminals, with Polish-Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin coining the time period to explain the Nazi extermination of six million Jews.
The crime of genocide was formally created within the Genocide Convention of 1948 to explain “acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group”.
Genocide is a “very specific international crime” which is tough to show, says Cecily Rose, professor of worldwide legislation on the University of Leiden within the Netherlands, noting that it calls for proof of the “psychological motivation” behind it.
Newcomer: crime of aggression
The ICC added a crime of aggression to its remit in 2017 to includes attacks on “the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence” of one other nation.
The offense goals to make sure that political and army leaders be held accountable for invasions and different main assaults however can’t be used in opposition to the handfuls of ICC members that haven’t acknowledged the courtroom’s jurisdiction for the crime.
The ICC additionally can not indict the chief of a rustic that’s not a member of the ICC for the crime of aggression.
Legal specialists say that bringing such a case in opposition to Russia might require the institution of a particular tribunal.